Thiazines are a family of organic compounds containing a ring containing four carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom and one sulfur atom. There are mainly three isomers of thiazines, namely 1,2-thiazine, 1,3-thiazine and 1,4-thiazine. Thiazine-containing compounds are commonly used as dyes, sedatives and insecticides.
Thiazine can be prepared by reacting the corresponding diketone with aluminum powder at high temperature. Thiazine derivatives can be easily adapted to different biomedical and pharmaceutical research by a variety of design and synthesis methods, including microwave radiation, solvent-free reactions, one-pot synthesis and other environmentally friendly methods.
Figure 1. (a) synthesis of some heterocyclic compounds derived from chalcones . (b) synthesis of substituted-4, 6-diaryl-2-imino-6H-2, 3-dihydro-1, 3-thiazine .
Phenothiazines and their novel derivatives have demonstrated good effectiveness against various diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, mollusks or protozoa. For example, 1,3-thiazine is the functional part of cephalosporins, which are β-lactam antibiotics active against most Gram-positive and many Gram-negative bacteria. Research on thiazine antimalarials has a long history, dating back to 1891, in which Guttmann and Ehrlich used thiazine to treat malaria. Thiazine is very effective and selective in inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium. In addition, thiazine can treat edema, hypertensive disorders, idiopathic hypercalcemia, nephrogenic urolithiasis and pituitary urolithiasis. However, side effects such as electrolyte disturbances (hypokalemia, magnesium, chloride), hyperuricemia, metabolic changes (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia), anaphylaxis, hepatic encephalopathy need to be noted when using thiazides or renal insufficiency.
In summary, thiazines are a very essential class of heterocyclic compounds whose research has attracted the interest of medicinal chemists and biochemists to a large extent. Such powerful molecules have the ability to devise potentially bioactive agents with promising applications in the treatment of different infectious and inflammatory diseases.
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